Nonyl phenol ethoxylate, a common ingredient in laundry detergents and all-purpose cleaners, is banned in Europe, and biodegrades slowly into even more toxic compounds ; Even the Environmental Protection Agency lists disinfectants that contain phenols as "corrosive and toxic." A-Z Topics; Resource Library; Home. Diarrhea occurs 6 to 8 hours after diphenylmethane cathartics are administered and can be severe if large doses are given (Boothe, 2001). Sterilize by filtration through 0.22 µm pore size membrane filter and store at room temperature. Phenolphthalein is commonly used as a chemical indicator, which turns from colorless to pink in the range of 8–10 pH, which makes it ideal for the titration of strong acids, such as hydrochloric acid. Danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthroquinone) is a synthetic anthraquinone drug. Aryloxide–ether bidentate complexes such as TiCl2(OC6H4OMe)2, (TiCl2(μ-Cl)(OC6H4OMe))2, (TiCl(μ-Cl)(OPri)(OC6H4OMe))2, (TiCl(OC6H4OMe)2)2(μ-O), and TiCl2(OPri)(OC6H4OMe)2 (HOPri) were prepared via the reaction of the phenol with TiCl4.526,527 Crystallographic data confirmed a cis arrangement of the Cl atoms for TiCl2(OC6H4OMe)2 and (TiCl2(μ-Cl)- (OC6H4OMe))2. It is used in pressed-wood products, such as particleboard, plywood, and fiberboard; glues and adhesives; permanent-press fabrics; paper product coatings; and certain insulation materials. Table 28.5 lists common types of irritant laxative. By using this site, you agree to our, Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound, often used as an indicator in titrations and its formula is C, Phenolphthalein is synthesized through condensation of, Phenolphthalein has been observed to cause cancers in animals, based on studies. This compound is reported to inhibit 3α-HSD and aromatase activities (Blomquist et al., 2005). In Japan manufacturers voluntarily withdrew products containing phenolphthalein. Phenol, a common ingredient in cleaning and construction products, is particularly toxic. Make your products visible globally with Elite Membership. Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound, often used as an indicator in titrations and its formula is C20H14O4. Cumulatively, it can cause neurological conditions, liver failure and even death. Phenolphthalein has been included in the European Chemicals Agency's candidate list for Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC). Phenolphthalein changes color when the acidity of the surrounding environment changes. Ricinoleic acid is the most potent of these compounds, and initiates rapid and complete colonic emptying. Further to the actions taken in the USA and France to withdraw laxative products containing phenolphthalein, the following measures have been taken [33]. In such cases, it is used to empty the bowels. Common anthraquinone-type cathartics are derived from plants: cascara sagrada from Rhamnus spp., senna from Senna spp. Phenolphthalein is a widely applied but toxic indicator dye. Main Menu Search. Common anthraquinone-type cathartics are derived from plants: cascara sagrada from Rhamnus spp., senna from Senna spp., and aloin from Aloe spp. Coumestrol is a natural organic compound and is abundant in some foods such as soybeans. Phenolphthalein is an organic compound used as a laboratory reagent and pH indicator. Enter your registered Email ID to get reset password. Animals treated with irritant cathartics should be monitored for hydration and electrolyte status with correction as needed. 0 0 Firefighters should wear full fire fighting turn-out gear and respiratory protection (SCBA). Phenol is a widely used chemical solvent used in numerous places, including chemistry, biology and medical laboratories. Bisacodyl, at a dosage of 5 mg q24h PO, is the most effective stimulant laxative in the cat. European/International Regulations European Labeling in Accordance with EC Directives Hazard Symbols: XN Risk Phrases: Phenolphthalein was widely used as a laxative for over a century. Furthermore, another case–control study of cancer on several tissues reported an augmentation in the risk of colon cancer among patients who employed phenolphthalein, but the number of higher exposure cases was limited and also the results were not statistically significant. Daily administration of bisacodyl has been linked to enterocyte injury, but this is of uncertain functional significance (see “Laxative-Induced Colonic Injury” section).12, Karyn Bischoff, in Veterinary Toxicology (Third Edition), 2018. There is some absorption of anthraquinone glycosides, and delayed transit through the small intestine decreases effectiveness. It was first synthesized by Adolf von Baeyer in 1871. Vegetable oil laxatives are hydrolyzed by lipase in the small intestine and form sodium and potassium salts which act as soaps, producing irritation (Boothe, 2001). Phenolphthalein is a potent laxative, which acts within 6–8 hours; its effects may last 3–4 days. 77, No. Positive: A tube of uninoculated substrate inoculated with M. fortuitum. Similarly, a disulfone ligand has been used to prepare Ti2(μ-OPri)2(OPri)4(HC(SO2CF3)2)2 from TiCl(OPri)3.533 The reaction of TiCl4 with Cl2O6 led to the formation of Ti(ClO4)4 in which the oxygen atoms of the perchlorate ligands bound to Ti in a bidentate fashion.534, Metal (Cu, Ni, Co) complexes containing ligands with pendent oxygen donors such as acids,535 oxime donors,536 enaminoketonates, or enaminoiminates,537 have been reported to complex to titanium. Phenolphthalein laxatives are often chocolate flavored, increasing palatability, but are only effective in primates and swine (Boothe, 2001). In Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), 2016. Sterilize by filtration through 0.22 µm pore size membrane filter and store at 5°C. 1A or 1B and/or an entry in the Candidate list. Benjah-bmm27. Anthraquinones produce catharsis after 6–12 h in small animals and 12–36 h in large animals (Boothe, 2001). Anthraquinones are hydrolyzed by bacteria in the large intestine to emodins, which stimulate the myenteric plexus. Phenolphthalein is used as a laxative to treat incomplete and infrequent bowel movement. Phenol is an aromatic compound. Less-toxic phenols, such as n-hexylresorcinol, have supplanted phenol itself in cough drops and other antiseptic applications. You can taste and smell phenol at levels lower than those that are associated with harmful effects. Phenolphthalein exerts laxative effects by stimulating the intestinal mucosa and constricting smooth muscles. Ricinoleic acid is the most potent of these compounds, and initiates rapid and complete colonic emptying. Unfortunately, there are insufficient data about carcinogenicity of this compound in humans, although this compound is probably carcinogenic in human considering its carcinogenicity in animals. Phenolphthalein, ACS Safety Data Sheet according to Federal Register / Vol. Potentially toxic to reproduction: comes from a harmonised C&L classifying the substance as suspected toxic to reproduction Repr. Dissolve 10.6 g of an anhydrous, Na2CO3 in 100 mL of DW. Licorice component glycyrrhetinic acid has been reported to inhibit many HSDs including 3β-HSD2, 11β-HSD1, 11β-HSD2, and 17β-HSD3 (Ma, Lian, Dong, & Ge, 2011; Monder et al., 1989; Ye, Su, & Ge, 2011). Phenol is a type of organic compound. Phenol has a distinct odor that is sickeningly sweet and tarry. Regulations alike, ensure that manufacturers of phenolphthalein and other such toxic chemicals are obliged to notify their customers of the presence of any toxic substances, which are of high concern in their chemical products exceeding 0.1% by weight and provide instructions for the safe use of the chemical. A material safety data sheet is instrumental in the safe handling of phenolphthalein. This is affected by preventing thapsigargin and thrombin, the two activat… Phenolphthalein Skin Not Available Eyes Not Available Respiratory Not Available Ingestion Not Available Carcinogenicity IARC 2B - Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans (Phenolphthalein). Prepare two flasks, each with 200 mL of the sterile liquid medium. Changes in urine color have been reported with anthraquinones. Phenolphthalein Section 1 ­ Chemical Product and Company Identification MSDS Name: Phenolphthalein Catalog Numbers: 14771­0000, 14771­1000, 14771­5000, 41718­0000, 41718­0025, 41718­1000, 41718­ 5000 Synonyms: Company Identification: Acros Organics BVBA … There is a report that reveals oral administration of phenolphthalein is able to cause histiocytic sarcoma and lymphoma in B6C3F1 mice. 2.9) (Hartmans and de Bont, 1992; Kent and Kubica, 1985; Smida et al., 1988; Rogall et al., 1990; Stahl and Urbance, 1990; Wayne and Diaz, 1985; Stackebrandt et al., 1987; Pitulle et al., 1992; World Health Organization, 1998). Acidic urine will turn pink with addition of sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate (Papich, 1990). Phenolphthalein's common use is as an indicator in acid-base titrations. Bisacodyl is structurally similar to phenolphthalein. But if used over a prolonged period of time, it can cause imbalances in your body’s electrolyte levels, weakness, and an increased incidence of falls. It has a very distinct odor to it and should be stored properly in closed containers and out of the direct light. It is pinkish in simple solutions (with the transition occurring around pH 9). The recent epidemiological studies could not provide sufficient data to evaluate the relationship between human carcinoma and phenolphthalein exposure. A hypothesis that phenolphthalein might increase the risk of development of adenomatous colorectal polyps has not been confirmed [30]. Phenolphthalein has been observed to cause cancers in animals, based on studies. Phenolphthalein has been found to hinder human cellular calcium influx by means of store-operated calcium entry. Such adverse reactions as kidney irritation or skin rash may occur. Figure 2.9. Furosemide, spironolactone, hydroxyurea, allopurinol, and docusate were all reintroduced without reactivation of the lesions. It was reported to cause multiple types of cancers on animal models (Dunnick & Hailey, 1996). This Journal. About Us. Pigmentation defects have been described. With chronic use of these laxatives, the myenteric plexus will degenerate causing a loss in intestinal motility. ... One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) Phenol, chemically known as carbolic acid, is a white, volatile crystal solid. There is a report that reveals oral administration of phenolphthalein is able to cause histiocytic sarcoma and lymphoma in B6C3F1 mice. Stay updated with the latest chemical industry trends and innovations. Coumestrol also inhibited human 20α-HSD with IC50 of 200 nM (Poirier, 2003). It also serves as a component of universal indicator, together with methyl red, bromothymol blue, and thymol blue. Phenol is quite toxic, however, and concentrated solutions cause severe but painless burns of the skin and mucous membranes. European Union At a Pharmacovigilance Working Party meeting in September 1997, it was indicated that national competent authorities were either considering immediate suspension of phenolphthalein or were discussing with the relevant marketing authorization holders voluntary withdrawal down to the wholesale level. Anthraquinones are hydrolyzed by bacteria in the large intestine to emodins which stimulate the myenteric plexus. This has raised suspicions over the use of phenolphthalein by humans. Abdominal pain or colic is produced by large doses. Dissolve 2.6 g of phenolphthalein disulfate (tripotassium salt), in 50 mL of DW to make a 0.08 M of stock solution. Glycyrrhetinic acid also inhibited human 20α-HSD with IC50 of 2.2 μM (Higaki et al., 2003). Pink discoloration of alkaline urine is seen with phenolphthalein. After reviewing the benefits and risks associated with the use of phenolphthalein-containing laxatives, Health Canada concluded that there is a risk that phenolphthalein may cause cancer in humans; therefore authority to sell and distribute these products was revoked. A fixed drug eruption with bullous erythema multiforme is associated with auto-sensitization, and direct intracellular immunofluorescence is found [29]. phenolphthalein. Changes in urine color are reported with anthraquinones. The most serious albeit rare adverse effect on the skin to have been reliably documented is toxic epidermal necrolysis. Phenol is considered to be quite toxic to humans via oral exposure. Contact Us. Danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthroquinone) is synthetic, but is considered the prototype for the anthraquinone laxative group. It is essential that phenol users understand its properties and know correct handling procedures. 0 Protective equipment and precautions for firefighters: Use foam or dry chemical to extinguish fire. As suggested by the term irritant laxative, these compounds cause contact irritation of gastrointestinal mucosa and increase fluid secretion into the lumen. Phenolphthalein disulfate (tripotassium salt), Middle brook 7H9 broth or Dubos tween-albumin, albumin dextrose catalase enrichment, sodium carbonate, DW. Phenolphthalein has been found to hinder human cellular calcium influx by means of store-operated calcium entry. California No Significant Risk Level: None of the chemicals in this product are listed. Phenolphthalein Indicator Created by Global Safety Management, Inc. -Tel: 1-813-435-5161 - www.gsmsds.com TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act): All ingredients are listed. Acidic urine will turn pink with addition of sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate (Papich, 1990). Abdominal pain or colic is produced by large doses. Phenol is also highly toxic to aquatic life and frogs. However, studies have also shown that phenolphthalein does not increase the risk of getting cancerssuch as kidney cancer, lymphoma and kidney cancer. Anorexia, progressive weight loss, diarrhea, vertigo, salivation, a dark coloration of the urine, and blood and liver effects have been reported in chronically (long-term) exposed humans. It is extremely toxic toward living cells. Household cleansers kill germs, but they can also kill cats. terms and conditions. Vegetable oil products contain irritant fatty acids such as ricinoleic acid in castor oil, linoleates in linseed oil and oliveates in olive oil. When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Phenol. Phenolphthalein is also prescribed for the treatment of chronic atonic or spastic constipation and of constipation associated with rectal disorders; management of irritable bowel syndrome. Phenolphthalein was once widely used as a laxative for self-treatment, often camouflaged in chocolate and thus liable to abuse or accidental use; it is now obsolete. It may be given individually or in combination with fiber supplementation for long-term management of constipation. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. It is a weak acid that is partially soluble in water and is usually dissolved in alcohol for experimental applications. Benzbromarone is a uricosuric agent used in the treatment of gout and it also potently inhibited human 20α-HSD, with IC50 of 48 nM (Higaki et al., 2003). Bisacodyl is similar to phenolphthalein. Phenolphthalein is highly toxic as defined by the OSHA Laboratory Standard. The toxic effect of phenol on the central nervous system, discussed below, causes sudden collapse and loss of consciousness in both humans and animals; a state of cramping precedes these symptoms because of the motor activity controlled by the central nervous system. This clinical effect is seen 4 to 8 hours after administration of castor oil in small animals, and 12 to 18 hours post-dosing in large animals. If voluntary action was not agreed by marketing authorization holders, the national competent authorities concerned would consider suspension of the products. As suggested by the term “irritant laxative,” these compounds cause contact irritation of gastrointestinal mucosa and increase fluid secretion into the lumen. This clinical effect is seen 4–8 h after administration of castor oil in small animals and 12–18 h postdosing in large animals. METABOLISM: Phenol is metabolized and excreted principally by the kidneys as the sulfate or glucuronide, although some phenol may be excreted unchanged, especially at high doses. Reproductive toxicity -- Phenolphthalein: Phenolphthalein is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. Five percent of an oral dose of bisacodyl is absorbed. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543011362, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444537171009604, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128000953000134, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128146927000024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781416036616000109, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080437486030280, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978141603661600050X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128114100000210, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123859266000284, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), Ma, Lian, Dong, & Ge, 2011; Monder et al., 1989; Ye, Su, & Ge, 2011, Shimada, Ohtaguro, Miura, & Imamura, 2007, Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacterium, Hartmans and de Bont, 1992; Kent and Kubica, 1985; Smida et al., 1988; Rogall et al., 1990; Stahl and Urbance, 1990; Wayne and Diaz, 1985; Stackebrandt et al., 1987; Pitulle et al., 1992; World Health Organization, 1998. 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